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While many dietary recommendations have been proposed to reduce cancer risks, the evidence to support them is not definitive. The primary dietary factors that increase risk are obesity and alcohol consumption. Diets low in fruits and vegetables and high in red meat have been implicated but reviews and meta-analyses do not come to a consistent conclusion. A 2014 meta-analysis find no relationship between fruits and vegetables and cancer. Coffee is associated with a reduced risk of liver cancer. Studies have linked excess consumption of red or processed meat to an increased risk of breast cancer, colon cancer and pancreatic cancer, a phenomenon that could be due to the presence of carcinogens in meats cooked at high temperatures. In 2015 the IARC reported that eating processed meat (e.g., bacon, ham, hot dogs, sausages) and, to a lesser degree, red meat was linked to some cancers.

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General symptoms occur due to effects that are not related to direct or metastatic spread. These may include: unintentional weight loss, fever, excessive fatigue and changes to the skin. Hodgkin disease, leukemias and cancers of the liver or kidney can cause a persistent fever.

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About cancer Find out what we are doing to improve cancer services in England. Prevention and public health We will significantly reduce the 40% of cancers caused by behavioural, lifestyle and environmental factors. Earlier diagnosis Earlier diagnosis makes it more likely that patients will receive treatments that can cure cancer. It saves lives. Patient experience We are improving patient experience and putting it on an equal footing with other clinical outcomes. Living with and beyond cancer We will support people affected by cancer to live healthy and happy lives. Commissioning, provision and accountability People affected by cancer and clinical leaders will be in the driving seat for improving quality.

Cancer - Wikipedia

Non-ionizing radio frequency radiation from mobile phones, electric power transmission and other similar sources have been described as a possible carcinogen by the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, studies have not found a consistent link between mobile phone radiation and cancer risk.

Smarter, kinder treatments We will move a step closer to cure by bringing personalised treatments into the clinic and developing them for patients. Find out more Creating new treatments that target tumours Teams of biologists, chemists and computational scientists design new drugs to selectively attack tumours Find out more Innovative approaches We will take on the challenge of cancer’s complexity, evolution and drug resistance through the discovery of innovative new approaches to cancer treatment. Find out more Unravelling cancer’s complexity We will comprehend the full complexity of cancer by harnessing the power of new technologies and Big Data. Find out more Making it count We will deliver better outcomes and improved quality of life for patients by establishing innovative treatments, diagnostics and strategies for prevention as part of routine healthcare. Find out more Foundations To achieve our aims, we need to put down strong foundations in the way we organise and support our research. Find out more

Nearly half of all hospitals are failing to provide specialist support for people living with secondary breast cancer. We spoke to Tracy, a secondary breast specialist cancer nurse, about the importance of providing support to women living with the condition.

Research funding We are committed to funding cancer research of the highest international calibre. Find a grantHow to apply Resources for health professionals Find the latest statistics, learning and development tools, and information on early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cancer. Visit our resources for health professionals

Cancer incidence There were around 357,000 new cases of cancer in the UK in 2014, that’s 980 cases diagnosed every day. In males, there were around 181,000 cases of cancer diagnosed in the UK in 2014. In females, there were around 176,000 cases of cancer diagnosed in the UK in 2014. Every two minutes someone in the UK is diagnosed with cancer. Breast, prostate, lung and bowel cancers together accounted for over half (53%) of all new cancers in the UK in 2014. Half (50%) of all cancer cases in the UK each year are diagnosed in people aged 70 and over (2012-2014). Incidence rates for all cancer cases in the UK are highest in people aged 85+ (2012-2014). See more cancer incidence statistics Cancer mortality There were around 163,000 cancer deaths in the UK in 2014, that’s 450 deaths every day. In males, there were around 86,500 cancer deaths in the UK in 2014. In females, there were around 76,900 cancer deaths in the UK in 2014. Every four minutes someone in the UK dies from cancer. Lung, bowel, breast and prostate cancers together accounted for almost half (46%) of all cancer deaths in the UK in 2014. More than a fifth of all cancer deaths are from lung cancer. More than half (53%) of cancer deaths in the UK are in people aged 75 years and over (2012-2014). See more cancer mortality statistics Cancer survival Half (50%) of people diagnosed with cancer in England and Wales survive their disease for ten years or more (2010-11). Cancer survival is higher in women than men. Cancer survival is improving and has doubled in the last 40 years in the UK. Cancer survival is generally higher in people diagnosed aged under 40 years old, with the exception of breast, bowel and prostate cancers, where survival is highest in middle age. See more cancer survival statistics Cancer risk 1 in 2 people in the UK born after 1960 will be diagnosed with some form of cancer during their lifetime. 4 in 10 (42%) of cancer cases in the UK each year are linked to lifestyle factors. Smoking is the largest single preventable cause of cancer each year in the UK. See more cancer risk statistics Cancer diagnosis and treatment ‘Two-week wait’ is the most common route to diagnosing cancer. Screening is the route with the highest proportion of cases diagnosed at an early stage, for all cancers combined. ‘Two-week wait’ standards are met by all countries, ’31-day wait’ is met by all but Northern Ireland and Wales, and ’62-day wait’ is not met by any country for all cancers combined. Around 9 in 10 patients had a ‘very good’ or ‘excellent’ patient experience. Almost 9 in 10 patients are given the name of their Clinical Nurse Specialist. See more in-depth cancer diagnosis and treatment statistics

Palliative care may be confused with hospice and therefore only indicated when people approach end of life. Like hospice care, palliative care attempts to help the patient cope with their immediate needs and to increase comfort. Unlike hospice care, palliative care does not require people to stop treatment aimed at the cancer.

ICR’s Professor Richard Houlston made Fellow of the Royal Society Professor Richard Houlston, a world-leading geneticist at the ICR, has been elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society in recognition of his outstanding contribution to cancer research. Read more  New blood test predicts who will benefit from targeted prostate cancer treatments A new blood test could predict which men with advanced prostate cancer will respond to new targeted treatments for the disease. Read more  “I didn’t stop” – how Phoebe Waters ran her first ever marathon in memory of her father With the 2017 London Marathon safely behind her, #teamICR runner Phoebe Waters – running the marathon in memory of her father who had cancer – has stopped nursing her blisters and found the time to tell us about her phenomenal race day experience. Read more  Engaging with the public Our three-year plan to embed public engagement across the ICR, create lasting relationships with local community groups and inspire young people to pursue careers in science. Read more  Run the London Marathon 2018 Join #teamICR for the 2018 London Marathon and help us defeat cancer. Find out more  1/5 Smarter, kinder treatments We will move a step closer to cure by bringing personalised treatments into the clinic and developing them for patients. Find out more Creating new treatments that target tumours Teams of biologists, chemists and computational scientists design new drugs to selectively attack tumours Find out more Innovative approaches We will take on the challenge of cancer’s complexity, evolution and drug resistance through the discovery of innovative new approaches to cancer treatment. Find out more Unravelling cancer’s complexity We will comprehend the full complexity of cancer by harnessing the power of new technologies and Big Data. Find out more Making it count We will deliver better outcomes and improved quality of life for patients by establishing innovative treatments, diagnostics and strategies for prevention as part of routine healthcare. Find out more Foundations To achieve our aims, we need to put down strong foundations in the way we organise and support our research. Find out more   We’re transforming breast cancer research Help support our new programme of research into hormone receptor-positive breast cancer Find out more  Our scientific discoveries For more than 100 years, the ICR has played an important role in shaping understanding of cancer and how it can be treated. Find out more  The Drug Discoverer Our Chief Executive and President, Professor Paul Workman, shares his experiences on his blog, The Drug Discoverer. Find out more  Our learning and teaching strategy Find out how we plan to educate and train the next generation of cancer researchers and clinicians. Find out more  How we work with industry We work in close partnership with industry to take results into the clinic as soon as possible, and make sure our research delivers for cancer patients. Find out more  Our research excellence The ICR is the top-ranked academic research centre in the UK after coming first overall in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework. Find out more 

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Not all tumors are cancerous; benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss and a change in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.

Oncoviruses (viruses that can cause cancer) include human papillomavirus (cervical cancer), Epstein–Barr virus (B-cell lymphoproliferative disease and nasopharyngeal carcinoma), Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (Kaposi’s sarcoma and primary effusion lymphomas), hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (hepatocellular carcinoma) and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (T-cell leukemias). Bacterial infection may also increase the risk of cancer, as seen in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinoma. Parasitic infections associated with cancer include Schistosoma haematobium (squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder) and the liver flukes, Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis (cholangiocarcinoma).

In its early stages, cancer usually has no symptoms, but eventually a malignant tumour will grow large enough to be detected. As it continues to grow, it may press on nerves and produce pain, penetrate blood vessels and cause bleeding, or interfere with the function of a body organ or system.

Benign tumors (which are not cancers) are named using -oma as a suffix with the organ name as the root. For example, a benign tumor of smooth muscle cells is called a leiomyoma (the common name of this frequently occurring benign tumor in the uterus is fibroid). Confusingly, some types of cancer use the -noma suffix, examples including melanoma and seminoma.

How do I become a Cancer Voice?If you would like to become a Cancer Voice, you will need to first create a profile. Once you have registered as a Macmillan volunteer and are logged into your account, you can set up alerts by managing your profile settings on the ‘Your volunteering profile’ page. You will then be informed when new opportunities that match your needs become available.Under the heading ‘Subscriptions’ ensure your communication preferences are set to daily, weekly or monthly.Click ‘Done’ to save.Then, under the heading ‘Opportunity types’ click ‘Edit’ to manage your preferences. Tick the alert types that interest you under the ‘Using your cancer experience’ heading.Click ‘Done’ to save.If you would prefer not to register as a Cancer Voice, but would like to browse the Volunteering Village for Cancer Voice opportunities, simply click the button below. If you find the search too wide, add your postcode to bring up search results closer to home.

Diagnosing a new cancer in a pregnant woman is difficult, in part because any symptoms are commonly assumed to be a normal discomfort associated with pregnancy. As a result, cancer is typically discovered at a somewhat later stage than average. Some imaging procedures, such as MRIs (magnetic resonance imaging), CT scans, ultrasounds and mammograms with fetal shielding are considered safe during pregnancy; some others, such as PET scans, are not.

Treatment There can be a range of treatment for bowel cancer including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. There are also treatments for bowel cancer that has spread. Once diagnosed, the health professionals looking after you will talk though which treatments may be suitable for you

Deaths from cancer were 5.8 million in 1990. Deaths have been increasing primarily due to longer lifespans and lifestyle changes in the developing world. The most significant risk factor for developing cancer is age. Although it is possible for cancer to strike at any age, most patients with invasive cancer are over 65. According to cancer researcher Robert A. Weinberg, “If we lived long enough, sooner or later we all would get cancer.” Some of the association between aging and cancer is attributed to immunosenescence, errors accumulated in DNA over a lifetime and age-related changes in the endocrine system. Aging’s effect on cancer is complicated by factors such as DNA damage and inflammation promoting it and factors such as vascular aging and endocrine changes inhibiting it.

In sporadic cancers, deficiencies in DNA repair are occasionally caused by a mutation in a DNA repair gene but are much more frequently caused by epigenetic alterations that reduce or silence expression of DNA repair genes. This is indicated in the figure at the 3rd level. Many studies of heavy metal-induced carcinogenesis show that such heavy metals cause a reduction in expression of DNA repair enzymes, some through epigenetic mechanisms. DNA repair inhibition is proposed to be a predominant mechanism in heavy metal-induced carcinogenicity. In addition, frequent epigenetic alterations of the DNA sequences code for small RNAs called microRNAs (or miRNAs). miRNAs do not code for proteins, but can “target” protein-coding genes and reduce their expression.

Just like other Macmillan volunteering opportunities, you can dedicate as much or as little time as you wish. Cancer Voices’ roles include one-off activities as well as ongoing responsibilities, so it really is up to you how active you want to be, how much time you offer and what activities you get involved in. Although some of our opportunities involve travel, many can be carried out locally or even from home.

Many treatment options for cancer exist. The primary ones include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy and palliative care. Which treatments are used depends on the type, location and grade of the cancer as well as the patient’s health and preferences. The treatment intent may or may not be curative.

Think about whether anyone in your family has had ovarian or breast cancer, on either your mothers of fathers side. If you do have a family history, make sure you tell your GP.

Tobacco use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths. Another 10% is due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and excessive drinking of alcohol. Other factors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental pollutants. In the developing world nearly 20% of cancers are due to infections such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human papillomavirus (HPV). These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell. Typically many genetic changes are required before cancer develops. Approximately 5–10% of cancers are due to inherited genetic defects from a person’s parents. Cancer can be detected by certain signs and symptoms or screening tests. It is then typically further investigated by medical imaging and confirmed by biopsy.

In 2015 about 90.5 million people had cancer. About 14.1 million new cases occur a year (not including skin cancer other than melanoma). It caused about 8.8 million deaths (15.7%) of human deaths. The most common types of cancer in males are lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and stomach cancer. In females, the most common types are breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer and cervical cancer. If skin cancer other than melanoma were included in total new cancers each year it would account for around 40% of cases. In children, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and brain tumors are most common except in Africa where non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurs more often. In 2012, about 165,000 children under 15 years of age were diagnosed with cancer. The risk of cancer increases significantly with age and many cancers occur more commonly in developed countries. Rates are increasing as more people live to an old age and as lifestyle changes occur in the developing world. The financial costs of cancer were estimated at $1.16 trillion US dollars per year as of 2010.

Complementary and alternative cancer treatments are a diverse group of therapies, practices and products that are not part of conventional medicine. “Complementary medicine” refers to methods and substances used along with conventional medicine, while “alternative medicine” refers to compounds used instead of conventional medicine. Most complementary and alternative medicines for cancer have not been studied or tested using conventional techniques such as clinical trials. Some alternative treatments have been investigated and shown to be ineffective but still continue to be marketed and promoted. Cancer researcher Andrew J. Vickers stated, “The label ‘unproven’ is inappropriate for such therapies; it is time to assert that many alternative cancer therapies have been ‘disproven’.”

Cancer survival Half (50%) of people diagnosed with cancer in England and Wales survive their disease for ten years or more (2010-11). Cancer survival is higher in women than men. Cancer survival is improving and has doubled in the last 40 years in the UK. Cancer survival is generally higher in people diagnosed aged under 40 years old, with the exception of breast, bowel and prostate cancers, where survival is highest in middle age. See more cancer survival statistics

 

 

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